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Posts Tagged ‘Teoría de la crisis’

“El capital: razón histórica, sujeto revolucionario y conciencia”: Juan Iñigo Carrera

24/05/2016 Deja un comentario

Juan Iñigo Carrera, es economista e historiador de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, y director del Centro para la Investigación como Crítica Práctica (CICP). Entre el 5 y 12 de enero se encontrará en Chile, de forma inédita, impartiendo el seminario “El capital: razón histórica, sujeto revolucionario y conciencia” en la Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, en el marco de las “Jornadas de Crítica de la Economía Política. El Desarrollo Capitalista: Capital, Renta, Clases y Alternativa Política”, organizadas por CISOH. Leer más…

“Dietro e oltre la crisi”: Guglielmo Carchedi

24/05/2016 Deja un comentario

crisisLa crisi finanziaria del 2007-2010 ha riacceso la discussione sulle crisi, sulla loro origine e sui loro possibili rimedi.2 Oggigiorno, la tesi più influente nella sinistra identifica le cause della crisi da una prospettiva sottoconsumista e raccomanda politiche redistributive e politiche di investimento Keynesiane come soluzioni. Questo articolo sostiene che la giusta prospettiva per capire la crisi dovrebbe essere la legge della caduta tendenziale del tasso di profitto medio (TPM) di Marx, in breve la legge. La sua caratteristica è che il progresso tecnologico diminuisce il TMP piuttosto che aumentarlo, come si pensa comunemente. Vediamo perché.


I. La legge in poche parole
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“Capitalism: Competition, Conflict and Crises”: Anwar Shaikh

08/03/2016 Deja un comentario

518bxGmoqbL._SX327_BO1,204,203,200_The Henry George School of Social Science, and the New School of Social Research invite you to follow Professor Anwar M. Shaikh in a new series of lectures exploring his new ground-breaking Economic treatise, “Capitalism: Competition, Conflict and Crises”. The course will be introduced over two semesters. Recordings of the first semester, becoming available now, is comprised of 15 lectures. Subscribe to our YouTube Channel, Henry George School of Social Science to receive updates as new lectures are added.

Competition and conflict are intrinsic features of modern societies, inequality is persistent, and booms and busts are recurrent outcomes throughout capitalist history. State intervention modifies these patterns, but does not abolish them.

Professor Shaikh exposes how these and many other observed patterns are the results of intrinsic forces that shape and channel outcomes. Social and institutional factors play an important role, but at the same time, the factors are themselves limited by the dominant forces arising from “gain-seeking” behavior, of which the profit motive is the most important. These dominant elements create an invisible force field that shapes and channels capitalist outcomes.

The book’s approach departs from that of orthodox economics as well as the dominant elements in the heterodox tradition. There is no reference whatsoever to an idealized framework rooted in perfect firms, perfect individuals, perfect knowledge, perfectly selfish behavior, rational expectations, or so-called optimal outcomes. The book develops microeconomic and macroeconomic theory from real behavior and real competition, and uses it to explain empirical patterns in microeconomic demand and supply, wage and profits, technological change, relative prices of goods and services, interest rates, bond and equity prices, exchange rates, patterns of international trade, growth, unemployment, inflation, national and personal inequality, and the recurrence of general crises such as the current one which began in 2007-2008.

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“Capitalism: Competition, Conflict, Crisis”: Interview to Anwar Shaikh

24/02/2016 Deja un comentario

Competition and conflict are intrinsic features of modern societies, inequality is persistent, and booms and busts are recurrent outcomes throughout capitalist history. State intervention modifies these patterns but does not abolish them. Professor Anwar Shaikh, an economics professor at the Graduate Faculty of the New School for Social Research, develops these ideas in his latest book. Leer más…

“Cómo funciona la economía capitalista: una introducción a la teoría del valor-trabajo de Marx”: Maxi Nieto Ferrández

05/10/2015 Deja un comentario

libro MaxiEl propósito fundamental [de este libro] es mostrar que la teoría del valor-trabajo expuesta globalmente, pero no por completo desarrollada en El Capital constituye el marco fundamental para construir una teoría general del funcionamiento y la dinámica del modo de producción capitalista.

Se trata de reivindicar este marco teórico como un todo coherente en sus fundamentos, mostrando que tanto la teoría de los precios relativos y la explotación como la teoría de la acumulación, la distribución y la crisis se asientan sobre la categoría de valor, por lo que la «microeconomía» y la «macroeconomía» de Marx están orgánicamente conectadas. Mi planteamiento es que en El Capital, como sucede con cualquier otra obra esencial en la historia del pensamiento, no hay propiamente «partes» que pudieran reivindicarse o rescatarse aisladamente frente a otras descartables (es habitual que unos se queden con el análisis de clase, otros con su teoría de la explotación, otros con la de la acumulación y la crisis, etc.), como pretenden las lecturas convencionales (marxistas o no); lo que hay es una secuencia de pasos lógicos –aunque no desarrollada en su totalidad– dentro de un mismo proceso constructivo encaminado a investigar y exponer el sistema completo de relaciones sociales y económicas en que consiste el modo de producción capitalista. Leer más…

“Contemporary Imperialism”: Samir Amin

31/07/2015 Deja un comentario

Lenin, Bukharin, Stalin, and Trotsky in Russia, as well as Mao, Zhou Enlai, and Den Xiaoping in China, shaped the history of the two great revolutions of the twentieth century.1 As leaders of revolutionary communist parties and then later as leaders of revolutionary states, they were confronted with the problems faced by a triumphant revolution in countries of peripheral capitalism and forced to “revise” (I deliberately use this term, considered sacrilegious by many) the theses inherited from the historical Marxism of the Second International. Lenin and Bukharin went much further than Hobson and Hilferding in their analyses of monopoly capitalism and imperialism and drew this major political conclusion: the imperialist war of 1914–1918 (they were among the few, if not the only ones, to anticipate it) made necessary and possible a revolution led by the proletariat.

With the benefit of hindsight, I will indicate here the limitations of their analyses. Lenin and Bukharin considered imperialism to be a new stage (“the highest”) of capitalism associated with the development of monopolies. I question this thesis and contend that historical capitalism has always been imperialist, in the sense that it has led to a polarization between centers and peripheries since its origin (the sixteenth century), which has only increased over the course of its later globalized development. The nineteenth-century pre-monopolist system was not less imperialist. Great Britain maintained its hegemony precisely because of its colonial domination of India. Lenin and Bukharin thought that the revolution, begun in Russia (“the weak link”), would continue in the centers (Germany in particular). Their hope was based on an underestimate of the effects of imperialist polarization, which destroyed revolutionary prospects in the centers.

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“Capitalismo en recesión. La crisis en el centro y la periferia de la economía mundial”: Mateo, Juan Pablo (coord.)

20/03/2015 Deja un comentario

cerMateo, Juan Pablo (coord.) (2015): Capitalismo en recesión. La crisis en el centro y la periferia de la economía mundial. Madrid: Maia, 224 pp., 11 euros. ISBN: 978-84-92724-53-6

 Breve descripción

¿Cuáles son los aspectos característicos de la teoría marxista de la crisis? ¿Es posible comprender esta Gran Recesión a partir de las contradicciones propias del capitalismo según el planteamiento de Marx? ¿Por qué se deben rechazar las explicaciones de economistas neoliberales y keynesianos? ¿Qué papel tienen las finanzas en el proceso de acumulación y crisis? ¿Por qué y cómo una fase de expansión caracterizada por un espiral especulativa ha culminado en una crisis global del capitalismo?

A estas y otras preguntas trata de responder Capitalismo en recesión. La crisis en el centro y la periferia de la economía mundial, un esfuerzo por analizar una de las grandes crisis del sistema capitalista a partir de los fundamentos del enfoque marxista. Mientras que los economistas ortodoxos, que son los que en mayor medida tienen acceso a los medios de comunicación, explican la crisis económica a partir de aspectos ajenos a la dinámica del capitalismo, unos por la excesiva desregulación (keynesianos), otros por el intervencionismo del Estado (neoliberales), junto a elementos como la distribución del ingreso, la psicología de los inversores, las finanzas, etc., en este libro se aborda la crisis mundial como un momento necesario e inevitable de la dinámica de acumulación de capital. De lo contrario, ¿cómo explicar si no la recurrencia de las crisis a lo largo de la historia del capitalismo? Leer más…

“O Feitiço do Tempo: A crise financeira de 2007/2008 nas telas do cinema”: Marcelo Dias Carcanholo, João Leonardo Medeiros

20/02/2015 Deja un comentario

Film Fall PreviewResumo
Passado um bom tempo do estouro da atual crise do capitalismo, ainda não é claro se a crise foi superada ou se continua entre nós, provocando a quebra financeira da Europa. Três produções estadunidenses são particularmente hábeis ao expor o jogo financeiro sujo e irresponsável que funcionou como gatilho da crise: Capitalismo: uma história de amor (2009), de Michael Moore; Wall Street: o dinheiro nunca dorme (2010), de Oliver Stone; e Trabalho Interno (2010), de Charles Ferguson. O propósito do artigo é contrastá-las, discutindo a  capacidade dos filmes em (1) associar a crise ao funcionamento regular do capitalismo; (2) perceber a desarticulação, no plano teórico e prático, da mobilização anticapitalista como elemento decisivo do atual estágio do capitalismo; e (3) vislumbrar uma superação da crise para além dos marcos do próprio pensamento conservador, hoje pendendo para as costumeiras demandas por regulação estatal.

Palavras-chave: crise; capitalismo contemporâneo; cinema; estranhamento; alienação. Leer más…

“Harvey e o enigma da crise econômica recente”: Alex Wilhans Antonio Palludeto, Rogerio P. de Andrade

20/02/2015 Deja un comentario

harvey-enigma-of-capital-front-cover-5d1655d50599a7d787274c1583e46830Resenha do livro: HARVEY, D. The enigma of capital and the crises of capitalism. 2. ed. London: Profile Books, 2011. Edição brasileira: O Enigma do Capital. São Paulo: Boitempo, 2011.

Embora não exista na obra de Marx, de forma bem articulada e sistematizada, uma teoria geral da crise capitalista, este tema é objeto recorrente de análise na economia política marxista. Não é surpresa, portanto, que a última grande crise do capitalismo, conhecida como “Grande Recessão”, ainda seja objeto de análise por uma ampla gama de teóricos marxistas contemporâneos, como, por exemplo, Andrew Kliman, John Foster e Fred Magdoff, Gerard Duménil e Dominique Lévy, e David Harvey, para citar alguns.

Um aspecto central das teorias das crises capitalistas de inspiração marxista é que as crises são o resultado da operação das contradições inerentes ao modo de produção capitalista. Elas não decorrem de eventos que acontecem fora do sistema econômico, mas emergem em virtude do seu próprio desenvolvimento. A questão que se coloca é: quais são essas contradições? A identificação daquela que se crê central na explicação da crise é o que separa as várias abordagens marxistas sobre o tema. Neste sentido, na literatura econômica marxista existem três vertentes mais gerais que procuram explicar a natureza das crises: a teoria do subconsumo (por exemplo, Rosa de Luxemburgo, Paul Sweezy); a das desproporções interdepartamentais (Rudolf Hilferding); e a baseada na lei da tendência à queda da taxa de lucros (Paul Mattick, David Yaffe). Leer más…

“O Capital Monopolista-Financeiro e a Grande Recessão”: Alex Wilhans Antonio Palludeto, Rogerio P. de Andrade

20/02/2015 Deja un comentario

PB1849Resenha Bibliográfica: FOSTER J. B.; MAGDOFF, F. The Great Financial Crisis: Causes and Consequences. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2009.

A análise econômica marxista é marcada pela existência de abordagens reconhecidamente distintas. Há controvérsias recorrentes acerca do significado de quase todo o legado de Marx e de sua adequação para a compreensão dos fenômenos econômicos modernos. As inúmeras interpretações sobre a crise recente que o tomam como principal referência ilustram a pluralidade e a vitalidade que caracterizam a  economia política marxista.

Embora não exista na obra de Marx de forma bem articulada e sistematizada uma teoria geral da crise capitalista, este tema é objeto recorrente de análise na economia política marxista. Não é surpresa, portanto, que a última grande crise do capitalismo, conhecida como “Grande Recessão”, seja área de estudos de uma ampla gama de teóricos marxistas contemporâneos, como, por exemplo, David Harvey, Andrew Kliman, Gerard Duménil, John Foster e Fred Magdoff, para citar alguns.

Um aspecto central das teorias das crises capitalistas de inspiração marxista é que as crises são o resultado da operação das contradições inerentes ao modo de produção capitalista. Leer más…

“David Harvey, monomaniacs and the rate of profit”: Michael Roberts

05/01/2015 Deja un comentario

David Harvey is a Distinguished Professor at the City University of New York (CUNY), Director of The Center for Place, Culture and Politics (http://pcp.gc.cuny.edu/) and author of numerous books. For over 40 years, he has been one of the world’s most trenchant and critical analysts of capitalist development. And he has developed a global audience for his on-line video lectures on reading Capital, (see http://davidharvey.org/). Harvey won the 2010 Isaac Deutscher prize for the best Marxist book of the year with The Enigma of Capital (http://www.amazon.com/Enigma-Capital-Crises-Capitalism/dp/0199836841).

I have commented on Harvey’s contributions to Marxist economics on various occasions on my blog.
https://thenextrecession.wordpress.com/2010/09/03/views-on-the-great-recession-david-harvey-and-anwar-shaikh/
https://thenextrecession.wordpress.com/2011/11/13/david-harvey-marxs-method-and-the-enigma-of-surplus/
https://thenextrecession.wordpress.com/2014/05/19/david-harvey-piketty-and-the-central-contradiction-of-capitalism/

Professor Harvey has always been critical of the view that Marx’s law of the tendency of the rate of profit to fall plays any significant role as a cause of crises under capitalism. In his award winning book, The enigma of capital, he states that “There is, therefore, no single causal theory of crisis formation as many Marxist economists like to assert. There is, for example, no point in trying to cram all of this fluidity and complexity into some unitary theory of, say, a falling rate of profit”. Leer más…

“Los límites del capital en España: Las raíces de la “nueva normalidad””: Greig Charnock, Thomas Purcell, Ramon Ribera-Fumaz

05/12/2014 Deja un comentario

xjPv0IUaResumen
Este artículo explora las raíces de la difícil situación actual en el Sur Europeo, donde el crecimiento económico futuro probablemente será débil y acompañado de niveles de desempleo “estructural” masivos, desigualdad creciente y sucesivas crisis de cohesión social y política. Para ello, el artículo toma a España como caso paradigmático de esta “nueva normalidad”, y sostiene que la “racionalidad irracional” de la crisis en el capitalismo puede verse en los sucesivos ciclos de crisis que han resultado en el presente escenario económico catastrófico español, y – a través de la Unión Económica y Monetaria Europea – en la limitación de oportunidades políticas para restablecer el crecimiento más allá que en la subordinación de la reproducción social al poder del dinero y la (cada vez más autoritaria) ley. En este sentido, el artículo se enmarca en análisis diacrónicos basados en la teoría del valor del desarrollo capitalista que trazan la prefiguración de las formas contemporáneas de crisis en la formación y “resolución” de los ciclos precedentes de sobreacumulación y devaluación.

‘Las crisis, podemos concluir, son racionalizadores irracionales de un sistema irracional.’[2]

‘Tenemos un capitalismo rentable con alto desempleo. Es una combinación singular de capitalismo con austeridad que funciona en términos de beneficios pero no restablece crecimiento económico a un nivel que pueda resolver la crisis de la desocupación… Esto es la nueva normalidad [new normal]. [3]

En 2006, en el punto álgido del boom económico, el presidente de España, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, celebró el llamado milagro español: ‘Es difícil’, resumió, ‘encontrar en nuestra historia moderna un período de estabilidad política, crecimiento económico y bienestar social como el que hemos experimentado desde 1986’. ‘No hay duda’, añadió, ‘que España es más moderna, más prospera y está más unida que la España que entró en la Comunidad Europea hace veinte años’.[4] Las palabras de Rodríguez Zapatero estaban sustentadas por una década de alto crecimiento económico, en la cual la economía española creció más rápido que la media de la Unión Europea (EU) y creaba empleo a un ritmo que superaba a cualquier otro país de la UE. Sin embargo, sólo tres años más tarde, España se encontraba sumida en una recesión profunda, la más honda desde la transición democrática a finales de los sesenta. Leer más…

“How capitalism survives”: Michael Roberts

05/12/2014 Deja un comentario

How Capitalism Survives small

Last weekend, I attended this year’s London version of the Historical Materialism conference (http://www.historicalmaterialism.org/conferences/annual11), which for those who don’t know is an annual gathering of mainly Marxist academics, students and activists organised by the Historical Materialism journal. A host of papers and book launch presentations are made, often bringing out new ideas in the analysis of capitalism.

This year’s main theme was How Capitalism Survives and was apparently attended by over 750 scholars, academics and activists. It’s not possible to attend all sessions, of course, so my review concentrates on the economics papers and even there is sometimes based on reading the papers presented rather than on actually attending the session (so be forewarned!).

How does capitalism survive? Well, according to John Weeks, emeritus professor at SOAS, it’s because the capitalist mode of production has had very few of what could be called proper crises (2014 Weeks_Crisis_Izmir). Weeks reckons that only the Great Depression of the 1930s and the recent Great Recession could be considered generalised crises (“episodes of severe contraction”) that affected the world capitalist economy for any length of time or to any depth. Other so-called crises were merely mild recessions or financial crashes that were short and limited to the national economy concerned.

As for the causes, Weeks argues that it was the breakdown in the circuit of capital and the realisation of money that was the problem and had nothing to do with the accumulation of value in the production process, as advocated by the ‘falling rate of profit’ theorists. As he puts it: “The typical “falling rate of profit” mechanism fails to get out of the starting gate as a candidate for generating cross-country crises, much less global ones.” This is because Marx’s law of a rising organic composition of capital would only generate a gradual fall in profitability and there is no mechanism that decides “a critical value” of profit that could provoke a sudden collapse in production or investment or its simultaneous spread globally.

Well, I beg to differ. Starting with Henryk Grossman (http://www.marxists.org/archive/grossman/index.htm) and continuing with the work of many scholars very recently, such as Tapia Granados (http://thenextrecession.wordpress.com/2012/06/26/profits-call-the-tune/), including my own work and that of G Carchedi (The long roots of the present crisis), we find that there is a causal connection between the movement of profitability, profits and slumps in investment and GDP (and see my paper, The nature of current long depression).

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“The Great Meltdown of 2008: Systemic, Conjunctural or Policy-created?”: Workshop with David Harvey, John Weeks, Simon Mohun, Ben Fine, Anwar Shaikh, Al Campbell, David Kotz

21/11/2014 Deja un comentario
f-2011-crisis-unrisd-finalEl pasado mes de octubre se celebró en la Universidad de Izmir (Turquía) un congreso bajo el título de “The Great Meltdown of 2008: Systemic, Conjunctural or Policy created? Workshop” en el que participaron algunos de los más renombrados economistas marxistas. Las presentaciones de David Harvey, John Weeks, David Kotz, Simon Mohun, Anwar Shaikh, Al Campbell y Ben Fine fueron grabadas y aquí las recogemos.
Izmir University of Economics
The Great Meltdown of 2008: Systemic, Conjunctural or Policy created? Workshop

“Marx and Living Labour”: Laurent Baronian

21/11/2014 Deja un comentario

9780415508674From his early economic works on, Marx conceived the labour of any kind of society as a set of production activities and analysed the historical modes of production as specific ways of distributing and exchanging these activities. Political economy on the contrary considers the labour only under the form of its product, and the exchange of products as commodities as the unique form of social labour exchange. For Marx, insofar as the labour creating value represents a specific mode of exchanging the society’s living labour, general and abstract labour cannot not only be defined as the substance or measure unit of the commodity, as in Smith or Ricardo, but foremost as an expense of living labour, i.e. of nerves, muscles, brain, etc. Hence the twofold nature of living labour, as a concrete activity producing a use value and an expense of human labour in general producing exchange value. Marx himself claimed that this twofold nature of labour creating value was its main and most important contribution to economic science. This book aims at showing how both determines the original categories and economic laws in Capital and constitutes the profound innerspring of Marx’s critique of political economy. The role and function of living labour is highlighted by dealing with the difference between Marx and Classics’ theories of labour value; money and the problems of its integration in economic analysis, especially in Keynes; the transition from feudalism to capitalism; the theory of capital through a discussion on the Cambridge controversy and the transformation problem; the labour process and the principles of labour management; unemployment and overpopulation; the formulas of capital in the history of economic thought; finally, an interpretation of the current crisis based on Marx’s conception of overaccumulation and speculation after having distinguished it from underconsumption and stagnation theories of crises.

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