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Posts Tagged ‘Forma mercancía’

“La dialéctica del altermundismo y el anticapitalismo”: Wolfgang Fritz Haug

28/01/2013 Deja un comentario

El eruptivo aparecer de un movimiento multiforme de críticos de la globalización en Seattle, 1999, que fuera celebrado como el “nuevo Aurora” (Ramonet 2000) no ha iniciado un vuelco revolucionario mundial. Sin embargo, la forma de volcarse contra los dominadores del capitalismo mundial, redirigió la mirada de los antiglobalizadores al globo en el sentido de nuestro mundo. Una dialéctica memorable los transformó en luchadores de una mundialización de abajo. En francés se llaman ahora los “altermondialistes”. Tras el trauma paralizador del fracaso del socialismo de Estado, este movimiento ha hecho aparecer el nuevo sueño de un mundo que no fuera capitalista, sin degenerar en la omnipotencia de un aparato de Estado. Desde entonces tienen resonancia progresiva consignas, no sólo críticas del capitalismo actual, sino en contra del capitalismo como tal. Junto con ellas crece la necesidad de clarificación.

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“El fetichismo de la mercancí­a”: Reinaldo Carcanholo

09/01/2013 5 comentarios

“El carácter fetichista de la mercancía y su secreto”, una sección del primer volumen del “El Capital” (Carlos Marx, 1867) presentado por el economista brasileño Reinaldo Carcanholo.

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“Beyond the Market: Radical Alternatives to Market Socialism”: David McNally

31/12/2012 Deja un comentario

DAVID MCNALLY is Professor of Political Science at York University, Toronto. He is the author of five previous books: Political Economy and the Rise of Capitalism (1988); Against the Market: Political Economy Market Socialism and the Marxist Critique (1993); Bodies of Meaning: Studies on Language, Labor and Liberation (2001); Another World is Possible: Globalization and Anti-Capitalism (2002; second revised edition 2006); and Monsters of the Market: Zombies, Vampires and Global Capitalism (forthcoming 2010). His articles have appeared in many journals, including Historical Materialism, Capital and Class, History of Political Thought, New Politics, Studies in Political Economy, and Review of Radical Political Economics. His book on the economic crisis, Global Slump: The Economics and Politics of Crisis and Resistance, will be published by PM Press in November. David McNally is also a long-time activist in socialist, anti-poverty and migrant justice movements.

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“Un nuovo Marx. Filologia e interpretazione dopo la nuova edizione storico-critica (MEGA2)”: Roberto Fineschi

09/11/2012 2 comentarios

Introduzione

Raccolgo in questo volume – con l’aggiunta di un paio di inediti – una serie di saggi apparsi in questi anni su MEGA, Marx e marxismo italiano, tutti più o meno ruotanti attorno a Il capitale. Si tratta del terzo libro di una serie di interventi monografici dedicati all’autore tedesco ed è parte di un progetto unitario di rilettura della sua opera.[1]
L’esposizione è articolata in quattro nuclei tematici. Il primo è relativo alla MEGA, alla sua storia ed al dibattito tedesco che si è sviluppato in relazione alla sua pubblicazione nelle allora Germania occidentale e Germania orientale. Il cap. 1.1, dedicato alla storia della pubblicazione, è la sistemazione di un testo uscito in due versioni: Fineschi (1999) e Id. (2002a). Il cap. 1.2, dedicato al dibattito tedesco sulla teoria del valore negli anni ’70,  è una versione ampliata in più parti di un saggio uscito con lo stesso titolo (Fineschi, 2002b). Il cap. 1.3 è dedicato alla discussione sulle diverse edizioni del I libro del Capitale svoltosi nella Germania orientale fra i filologi che curavano i relativi volumi della MEGA. Il testo è inedito.

“Revisiting Marx’s Concept of Alienation”: Marcello Musto

07/09/2012 Deja un comentario

I. Introduction

Alienation was one of the most important and widely debated themes of the twentieth century, and Karl Marx’s theorization played a key role in the discussions. Yet contrary to what one might imagine, the concept itself did not develop in a linear manner, and the publication of previously unknown texts containing Marx’s reflections on alienation defined significant moments in the transformation and dissemination of the theory.

The meaning of the term changed several times over the centuries. In theological discourse it referred to the distance between man and God; in social contract theories, to loss of the individual’s original liberty; and in English political economy, to the transfer of property ownership. The first systematic philosophical account of alienation was in the work of G.W.F. Hegel, who in The Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) adopted the terms Entaüsserung (literally self-externalization or renunciation) and Entfremdung (estrangement) to denote Spirit’s becoming other than itself in the realm of objectivity. The whole question still featured prominently in the writings of the Hegelian Left, and Ludwig Feuerbach’s theory of religious alienation in The Essence of Christianity (1841) – that is, of man’s projection of his own essence onto an imaginary deity – contributed significantly to the development of the concept. Alienation subsequently disappeared from philosophical reflection, and none of the major thinkers of the second half of the nineteenth century paid it any great attention. Even Marx rarely used the term in the works published during his lifetime, and it was entirely absent from the Marxism of the Second International (1889–1914).

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“Commodity fetishism”: Fredy Perlman

07/09/2012 Deja un comentario

Fredy Perlman’s 1968 Introduction to I.I. Rubin’s “Essays on Marx’s Theory of Value“, Black Rose Books, Montreal, 1973.

INTRODUCTION: COMMODITY FETISHISM

According to economists whose theories currently prevail in America, economics has replaced political economy, and economics deals with scarcity, prices, and resource allocation. In the definition of Paul Samuelson, “economics – or political economy, as it used to be called … is the study of how men and society choose, with or without the use of money, to employ scarce productive resources, which could have alternative uses, to produce various commodities over time and distribute them for consumption, now and in the future, among various people and groups in society.”(1) According to Robert Campbell, “One of the central preoccupations of economics has always been what determines price.”(2) In the words of another expert, “Any community, the primers tell us, has to deal with a pervasive economic problem: how to determine the uses of available resources, including not only goods and services that can be employed productively but also other scarce supplies.”(3)

If economics is indeed merely a new name for political economy, and if the subject matter which was once covered under the heading of political economy is now covered by economics, then economics has replaced political economy. However, if the subject matter of political economy is not the same as that of economics, then the “replacement” of political economy is actually an omission of a field of knowledge. If economics answers different questions from those raised by political economy, and if the omitted questions refer to the form and the quality of human life within the dominant social-economic system, then this omission can be called a “great evasion”.(4)

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“La dialéctica del trabajo abstracto, valor y precio”: Mario Robles L. Báez

09/08/2012 Deja un comentario

Nuestra conceptualización del así llamado ‘problema de la transformación de los valores de las mercancías en precios de producción’ responde a un interpretación particular de la dialéctica de la inversión de Marx, es decir, de la negación de la ley basada en el valor y el plusvalor, que corresponde a la presentación del momento del capital-en-general donde “el precio” es “determinado por el trabajo”, por la ley basada en la libre competencia, que corresponde a la presentación del momento de la multiplicidad del capital donde “el trabajo” es “determinado por el precio” (G.2: 175). Con base en esta inversión, el ‘problema de la transformación’ de Marx es re-conceptuado como un doble movimiento inverso en él que, en el primer movimiento, se transforman los ‘valores’ de las mercancías en ‘precios de producción’ y, en el movimiento inverso, se transforman los ‘precios de producción’ a los ‘valores’ finales y definitivos de las mercancías. Como además concebimos que el ‘problema de la transformación’ y el ‘problema de la reducción’ del trabajo están dialécticamente relacionados, sostendremos que es precisamente por medio de la determinación de los ‘precios de producción’ y, por lo tanto, de los ‘valores’ finales de las mercancías en cuanto productos del capital que se resuelve la reducción de los diferentes tiempos de trabajos en sentido fisiológico-abstractos, directos e indirectos, de diferente complejidad e intensidad objetivados en la producción de las mercancías en las diferentes ramas de la producción a tiempos de trabajo social-abstracto puestos o validados socialmente por el capital productivo como un todo en la circulación.

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“Aulas sobre o Capital de Marx”: Reinaldo A. Carcanholo

01/08/2012 Deja un comentario

Curso de Reinaldo A. Carcanholo sobre El capital impartido para dirigentes sociales 2010-2011

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“Abstraction versus Contradiction: Observations on Chris Arthur’s The New Dialectic and Marx’s ‘Capital’”: Roberto Finelli

23/07/2012 Deja un comentario

Abstract

This intervention concerns the different statute of abstraction in Marx’s work. By means of a critical confrontation with Chris Arthur’s work, Finelli presents his thesis of the presence of a double theory and fuction of abstraction in Marx’s work. In the early Marx, until the German Ideology, abstraction is, in accordance with the traditional meaning of this term, a product of the mind, an unreal spectre. More exactly, it consists in negating the common essence belonging to labouring humanity and projecting it, as alienated universal, into the idea of philosophy, into the state of politics and into the money of the market. In the later Marx, the nature of abstraction is, rather than mental, practical. It is directly related to the quantity without quality of capitalist labour, and it is the product of the systemic connection of machines to labour-power. In contrast to Arthur, Finelli maintains that practical abstraction in the Marx of Capital is not located in the zone of exchange and the market, where there is the mediation of money. On the contrary, it is located in the zone of production, which, for Marx, is a social ensemble not mediated by money but by relations of technological domination.

Keywords

abstraction, formal determination, presupposed-posited, opposition-contradiction, abstractionemptying out, dissimulation. The New Dialectic and Marx’s ‘Capital

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“El proceso de aprendizaje de Marx. En contra de corregir a Marx con Hegel”: Wolfgang Fritz Haug

19/07/2012 Deja un comentario

No tengo nada que decir. Sólo que mostrar.”

Walter Benjamin, El Libro de los Pasajes

De los suabos se dice que sólo se vuelven “listos” pasada la cuarentena. Si hubiera que dar crédito a cierta literatura, con Karl Marx pasaría justo lo contrario. Poco después de cumplir los cuarenta, se dice, su inteligencia teórica empezó a decaer. Son principalmente las interpretaciones de orientación hegeliana de la crítica de la economía política las que consideran por norma retrocesos los progresos que hizo Marx desde los Grundrisse, pasando por la primera (1867) y segunda (1872) ediciones del libro I del Capital hasta su traducción al francés (1872-1875) y culminando en las Notas marginales sobre Wagner, pues de hecho todo esto fueron pasos que conducían más allá de la dialéctica especulativa de Hegel. Se afirma que, al popularizarlo, Marx debilitó el núcleo teórico de su pensamiento (véase Hoff 2004, 21-27). Particularmente Hans-Georg Backhaus ve –como antes que él, si bien de manera menos sumaria, Iring Fetscher- sobre todo en las reelaboraciones de la segunda edición del libro I del Capital una “vulgarización de su teoría del valor procurada por Marx mismo” (1997, 297). Asimismo, Backhaus transfiere al propio Marx una distinción que éste aplicó a Adam Smith, de suerte que Marx se desdoblaría en una parte “lógica, esotérica” y otra parte “historicista, exotérica” (1997, 294; análogamente Kurz 2000). La segunda parece que se relaciona con el Marx comprometido con el movimiento obrero, y sería el llamado “marxismo de movimiento obrero”, Arbeiterbewegungsmarxismus, como se suele decir con cierto desdén. En cualquier caso, desde el hundimiento del socialismo de estado de procedencia soviética en Europa, estos enfoques se han asociado, con agresividad creciente, al rechazo de todo tipo de marxismo.

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“The Labour Theory of Value: Materialist versus Idealist Interpretations”: Andrew Brown

21/06/2012 Deja un comentario

This paper presents a novel interpretation and affirmation of Marx’s initial arguments for the labour theory of value in Capital. The materialist principles that (i) powers are materially based, and (ii) ‘labour’ articulates nature and society, are developed so as to validate and emphasise Marx’s opening arguments. The argument is presented as a novel addition to existing critiques of ‘systematic dialectics’ and of ‘value form theory’. Though having some resemblance to critical realism, the materialist and dialectical underpinnings of the argument are drawn from the philosophy of E.V. Ilyenkov.

Keywords: Capitalism; Dialectics; Labour Theory of Value; Marxism; Methodology

Introduction

Amongst the current literature on Marx’s method, a group of authors including Arthur (e.g.
2002b), Reuten (e.g. 2004a), Smith (e.g. 1990) and Williams (e.g. 2001) have, in recent years, advanced our understanding of Marx and hence of capitalism very significantly. These authors have articulated the need to develop a comprehension of capitalism systematically from abstract to concrete with great clarity, drawing explicit inspiration from Hegel (Brown, Slater and Spencer, 2002). They argue, in different ways, that Marx tries to break free from classical political economy through the employment of this essentially Hegelian method of ‘systematic dialectics’ (despite Marx’s own critique of Hegel).

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“The Recent Controversy on Marx’s Value Theory: a critical assessment”: Changkeun Kim

29/05/2012 Deja un comentario

This paper critically assesses the recent debates on Marx’s value theory. Simultaneous Dual System Interpretation(SDSI) and New Interpretation(NI) on Marx’s value theory have flaws that Fundamental Marian Theorem may not hold, when there are negative physical surplus or net products. And NI and TSSI(Temporal Single System Interpretation)’s monetary expression of labourtime are challenged by the problem of circular reasoning because they are defined or determined in the transformation procedure. Therefore, Marx’s MELT should be determined based on his theory of commodity money.

Keywords: Marx, Fundamental Marxian Theorem, monetary expression of labour-time, commodity money, mine rent, Simultaneous Dual System Interpretation, New Interpretation, Temporal Single System Interpretation.

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“Marx’s Theory of the Money Commodity”: Anitra Nelson

23/05/2012 Deja un comentario

Abstract

Marx defines the commodity in a unique way. His theory of the money commodity is a unique commodity theory of money. It developed from a political critique of the utopian socialists’ concepts of money, labour time and exchange value. Besides using Hegel’s dialectical method, Marx also adapted certain ideas from his elaboration of ‘measure’ in the Logic to develop his concept of money. Similarly his framework for relating ‘price’, which appears in circulation, and ‘value’, the essential relation in production, can be compared with Hegel’s passages on the ‘force’ and its ‘manifestation’ in the Phenomenology of the Spirit. These influences on Marx’s thoughts on money appear in the Grundrisse but inform the final version of his theory of money in Capital I, too.

1 Introduction

Marx was a nineteenth century political intellectual unconstrained by the disciplinary rigour or specialisation insisted on by late twentieth century academia. Marx’s writings can be studied as sociology, philosophy, politics, economics, history, even as literature, though if studied from simply one perspective his work loses much of its richness and original message. An interdisciplinary approach is especially pertinent to Marx’s theory of money, which is definitely not just an economic theory. Marx was a scholar and a revolutionary. The development of his unique concept of money seems to have been strongly influenced by his background in Hegelian and Young Hegelian philosophy as well as by his political views. Certainly if looked at purely as an economic theory various aspects of it make little sense.

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“Dialéctica y capital: Elementos para una reconstrucción de la crítica de la economía política”: Robles Báez, Mario L. Compilador

14/05/2012 2 comentarios
México DF: UAM-X, CSH, Depto. de Producción Económica; 2005
1ra. edición
Págs. 318
ISBN: 9703104681

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“Money, Marx, and Gold” entrevista a Alan Freeman

03/05/2012 Deja un comentario

The guest this week is the Heterodox or Marxist Economist Alan Freeman. We talk about why gold is still relevant in this Late Capitalist moment even though we’re off the gold standard. And we discuss gold’s special relationship to money.

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